Great Leaf-nosed Bat; Great Roundleaf Bat; Great Himalayan Leaf-nosed Bat
Morphological description Life history Distribution Habitat Roost sites and roosting patterns Emergence and flight pattern Foraging behaviour Echolocation calls Status and protection
· Dorsal fur is grey-brown. Ventral fur is grey-brown or black-grey.
· Juveniles are darker than adults.
· It is a large species of hipposiderid bat. Forearm length 86.6 - 96.6mm (as given by Jones, in South China ).
· Four supplementary leaflets on the noseleaf are characteristic, with the outer leaflet is smallest (right hand picture).
· Body masses in China 45 g-71.2 g.
Bats from India had a wing area of 0.037 square m, a wing span of 0.49 m, wing loading of 9.5 N/square m, and an aspect ratio of 6.4 (Thabah, 2006).
· Little known
The distribution in China is shown by the dots on the map (as given by Zhang et al. 1997).
· Seen feeding in cleared spaces in woodland, gardens, between avenues of trees (Bates & Harrison, 1997). Seen foraging around street lights in Sichuan. Circles around trees, and uses night roosts such as buildings for shelter (Scully, 1887).
· Higher elevation areas are used by great leaf-nosed bats in India, the altitude ranging from 1030 metres - 2031 metres (Bates & Harrison, 1997). In Yunnan , we also found this species at 2270 metres. But in China the species is also found in lowland areas, such as those in Hong Kong and Guangdong.
· Caves are the typical diurnal roosts. Other night roost sites include houses, sheds, and old buildings. One roost in a tunnel over a waterway in Sichuan contained thousands of bats.
· This species often shares their roosts with other bat species. A maternity site was shared with Hipposideros pratti in Sichuan.
· Emerges in the early evening.
· Flight is rapid and agile, often circling around trees.
· In Meghalaya, India the diet comprised 56.3-100% Coleoptera between December-April, with up to 16.2% Lepidoptera, 27.5% Diptera (Thabah, 2006). In Malaysia it also ate mainly Coleoptera (36.7%) and Hymenoptera (28.8%) (Zubaid 1988).
The echolocation call is a short constant frequency signal, with a brief frequency-modulated start and tail.
To listen to the call of the great leaf-nosed bat click here
Size of sound file: 152 kb
Call frequencies: frequencies of most energy at 68 kHz in Guangdong, 68-68.8 kHz Guangxi, 64.8 kHz at 3 sites in Yunnan, 67.4-69.4 kHz in Sichuan. call frequencies are lower than those reported for Meghalaya, India (74.1 kHz: Thabah 2006).
· There is no estimate the of the population size of this species in China, though it can be common in southern China.
· Great leaf-nosed bats are at LR/lc, assessed by the Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2006) and are not listed in the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife in 1989.
· Caves and old buildings should be protected as their roosting habitats.